Welcome to the iSAX Page

This page was built in support of our SIGKDD 2008 paper:  iSAX: Indexing and Mining Terabyte Sized Time Series, by Jin Shieh and Eamonn Keogh

While the paper is self-contained, this paper contains additional experiments and information.

Furthermore, we expect to have additional iSAX algorithms discussed here in the future.

A webpage devoted to "classic" SAX is here.

 iSAX can support weighted Euclidean queries. In these slides we explain how, and discuss an experiment that shows this can significantly increase accuracy. iSAX can support DTW queries. In these slides we explain how, why DTW for large datasets is probably not very meaningful.

Most of the datasets we tested on are already in the public domain (UCR Archive is here, warning 500meg file, password peggy), for those that are not already in the archive we include the data below. In every case, the data is either in ASCII format (for the smaller files, extensions are ".txt" or ".dat") or in Matlab format (for the larger files, the extension is ".mat". You will need Ver 7.0 or above).

 Here we consider T,  the tightness of lower bounds. This is calculated as:        T = LowerBoundDist(a,b) / TrueEuclidianDist(a,b) We randomly sample a and b (with replacement) 1,000 times for each combination of  parameters. We vary the time series length [480, 960, 1440, 1920] and the number of bytes available per time series [16, 24, 32, 40]. We assume that each real valued representation requires 4 bytes per coefficient thus they use [4, 6, 8, 10] coefficients. For iSAX, we hard code the cardinality to 256, and we thus have [16, 24, 32, 40] words. For each experiment we created a bar chart and table. In addition, we include a link to the dataset if the dataset is not already in the public domain (UCR Archive data is here, warning 500meg file, password peggy). Recall that larger values are better. If the value of T is zero, then any indexing technique is condemned to retrieving every object from the disk. If the value of T is one, then there is no search, we could simply retrieve one file from disk and guarantee that we we had the true nearest neighbor. Note that the speedup obtained is generally non-linear in T, that is to say if one representation has a lower bound that is twice as large as another, we can usually expect a much greater than two-fold decrease in disk accesses. Pen: Image, Original Time Series Data. Data came from this paper: Behzad Malek, Mauricio Orozco and Abdulmotaleb El Saddik "Novel Shoulder-Surfing Resistant Haptic-based Graphical Password" Proc. of the EuroHaptics 2006 conference, July 3-6 Paris, France. Koski ECG: Image, Original Time Series Data. Data came from this paper: Antti Koski: Primitive coding of structural ECG features. Pattern Recognition Letters 17(11): 1215-1222 (1996) Steamgen: Image, Original Time Series Data.  Data came from this paper: G. Pellegrinetti and J. Benstman, Nonlinear Control Oriented Boiler Modeling -A Benchmark Problem for Controller Design, IEEE Tran. Control Systems Tech. Vol.4No.1 Jan.1996 Star Light Curve Image, Original Time Series Data. Data came from Harvard University Time Series Center. Mallet: Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file). Data came from this paper: M. K. Jeong, J. C. Lu, X. Huo, B. Vidakovic, and D. Chen (2006), "Wavelet-based Data Reduction Techniques for Process Fault Detection," Technometrics, 48(1), 26-40 Power_Data : Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file). Data came from this paper: van Wijk J. J. and van Selow E. R. Cluster and calendarbased visualization of time series data. In Proc. IEEE INFOVIS, pages 4-9, Oct. 25-26, 1999. Clorine (cl2fullLarge) Image: Original Time Series Data. Data comes from this website. Kung Fu MoCap: Image, Original Time Series Data. Data comes from this paper. PostureCentroidB Image, Original Time Series Data. Data comes from Jessica Lin, Eamonn J. Keogh, Stefano Lonardi, Jeffrey P. Lankford, Donna M. Nystrom: Visually mining and monitoring massive time series. KDD 2004: 460-469, see fig 13, 15. Ann_gun_CentroidA  Image, Original Time Series Data. Data comes from  Ratanamahatana, C. A. and Keogh. E. (2004). Making Time-series Classification More Accurate Using Learned Constraints. SDM '04 see fig 8 Converted_ERP Image, Original Time Series Data. Data comes from this paper. Tickwise Image, Original Time Series Data. Data comes from here. Foetal_ecg  Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) L. De Lathauwer, B. De Moor, J. Vandewalle, Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction by Source Subspace Separation. Proc. IEEE SP / ATHOS Workshop on HOS, 1995. Buoy Sensor Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) The Center for Coastal Studies' Data Zoo. Winding Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) This is one of the DaISy datasets. CSTR Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file)  This is one of the DaISy datasets. Burst Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file)  This is one of the DaISy datasets. Fluid_dynamics Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file)  Data comes from, Garabadu, Thompson, Lindstrom and Klewicki (2003). Fast and Accurate NN Approach for Multi-Event Annotation of Time Series . UUCS-03-021. Tide Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file). From paper: Analysis of Subtidal Coastal Sea Level Fluctuations Using Wavelets" by D. B. Percival and H. O. Mofjeld, JASA September 1997, Vol. 92, No. 439, 868-880. Motorcurrent Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) From papers of Richard J. Povinelli. Muscle Activation Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) From Hoos, O., Department of Sports Medicine, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany Morchen, F., Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany Physiodata (npo141) Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) Respiration Image, Original Time Series Data is here, as used in E. Keogh, J. Lin and A. Fu (2005). HOT SAX: Efficiently Finding the Most Unusual Time Series Subsequence (ICDM 2005) ECG (mitdbx_mitdbx_108) Image, Original Time Series Data is here, as used in E. Keogh, J. Lin and A. Fu (2005). HOT SAX: Efficiently Finding the Most Unusual Time Series Subsequence (ICDM 2005) ECG (chfdb_chf01_275) Image, Original Time Series Data is here, as used in E. Keogh, J. Lin and A. Fu (2005). HOT SAX: Efficiently Finding the Most Unusual Time Series Subsequence (ICDM 2005) TOR( Italy power demand 97 Image, Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) Trajectory3_7_2006.bmp Image,  Original Time Series Data is in UCR Archive (here, warning 500meg file) From this paper: Pokrajac, Lazarevic, Latecki: Incremental Local Outlier Detection for Data Streams. CIDM 2007: 504-515 Synthetic Lightning EMP Image, Data and explanation is here. Synthetic Lightning EMP Classification Data Sets Lightning (forte6class) Image, Data and explanation is here. FORTE Time Series Classification Data Sets. Notes: There is an apparent paradox in the some datasets, including  Muscle Activation dataset. The tightest of the lower bounds improves from 480 to 960. How is this possible? The data consist of noisy steps, like this [1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 0, 101, 100, 101, 103, 100, 0, 1, 2, 1, ...]. If a subsequence straddles at least one step, then the representation devotes most of its energy in approximating that step. However, if the subsequence falls within a single step, the z-normalization "expands" the signal to pure noise, which is hard to approximate. In this case, only the  subsequences of length 480 can fall within a single step. In general, there is little difference between DCT, DFT, PAA, iPLA and CHEB. This has been noted before (see table 1 of this paper). APCA is slightly worse that the rest if the data is completely stationary, but can be significantly better on datasets that are bursty, see Synthetic Lightning EMP as an example. Note that this dataset exhibits the apparent paradox discussed above. The Foetal_ecg dataset also exhibits this burstyness and corresponding improvement for APCA. Here is a spreadsheet which contains the raw numbers for the SAX vs PAA experiment in Figure 4 of the paper. The raw time series data is here. In the zip there are two files ts1.txt and ts2.txt (each line in each file represents a normalized time series of length 256, there should be 10,000 lines each). For each run of the experiment we require two time series, this corresponds to an entry in ts1.txt and an entry in ts2.txt. i.e. line 4 in ts1.txt is paired with line 4 in ts2.txt Here is the data used in the Time Series Set Difference Problem. You will need an EDF converter to open it, there are some good free ones here. Here is the code to convert DNA to time series. Here are some small sample datasets, the mitochondrial DNA of the Hippo, and the Polar Bear.The Contig NT_005334.15 of human chromosome 2 is  here (Local version here). Below in blue (human) and red (chimp) are the two similar sequences plotted in the paper. GTCAATGGCCAGGATATTAGAACAGTACTCTGTGAACCCTATTTATGGTGGCACCCCTTAGACTAAGATAACACAGGGAGCAAGAGGTTGACAGGAAAGCCAGGGGAGCAGGGAAGCCTCCTGTAAAGAGAGAAGTGCTAAGTCTCCTTTCTAAGGCACATGATGGAT TCAAGGGAAAGCCACATTTGACTAAAGCCCAAGGGATTGTTGCTTCTAATCCGATTTCTTGGCAGAAGATATTACAAACTAAGAGTCAGATTAATATGTGGGTGCCAAAATAAATAAACAAATAATTGAATAATCCCTGGAGGTTTAAGTGAGGAGAAACTCCTCCAC AGCTTGCTACCGAGGCAGAACCGGTTGAAACTGAAATGCATCCGCCGCCAGAGGATCTGTAAAAGAGAGGTTGTTACGAAACTGGCAACTGCCAACCAAAGTCCACCAATGGACAAGCAAAAAAGAGCACTCATCTCATGCTCCCAAGGATCAACCTTCCCAGAGTTT TCACTTAAGTGGCCACCAAGCCAGTTGTCAATCCAGGGCTTTGGACTGAAATCTAGGGCTTCATCCGCTACCTCAGAGTGTCTTCTATTTCTTCCAGCCAGTGACAAATACAACAAACATCTGAGATGTTTTAGCTATAAATCCTTTACAATTGTTATTTATGTCTTA ACTTTTGTTATACCTGGAAAAGTAGGGGAAACAATAAGAACATACTGTCTTGGCCAAGCATCCAAGGTTAAATGAGTTATGGAAATTCATTTGGGAGCCAAGACATTGCACGTGGTTATTTATTAGTCACCCAAGCATGTATTTTGCATGTCCATCAGTTGTTCTTGG CCAAAAGAGCAGAATCAATGAGCCGCTGCAGATGCAGACATAGCAGCCCCTTGCAGGGACAAGTCTGCAAGATGAGCATTGAAGAGGATGCACAAGCCCGGTAGCCCGGGAAATGGCAGGCACTTACAAGAGCCCAGGTTGTTGCCATGTTTGTTTTTGCAACTTGTC TATTTAAAGAGATTTG `GGCAATGGCCAGGATATTAGAACAGTACTCTGTGAACCCTATTTATGGTAGCACCCCTTAGACTAAGATAACACAGGGAGCAAGAGGTTGACAGGAAAGCCAGGGGAGCAGGGAAGCCTCCTGTAAAGAGAGAAGTGCTAAGTCTCCTTTCTAAGGCACATGATGGAT` `TCAAGGGAAAGTCACATTTGACTAAAGCCCAAGGGATTGTTGCTTCTAATCCGATTCTTGGCAGAAGATATTGCAAACTAAGAGTCAGATTAATATGTGGGTGCCAAAATAAATAAACAAATAATTGAATAATCCCTGGAGGTTTAAGTGAGGAGAAACTCCTCCACA` `GCTTGCTACCGAGGCAGAACCGGTTGAAACTGAAATGCACCCGCTGCCAGAGGATCTGTAAAAGGGAGGTTGTTACCGAACTGGCAACTGCCAACCAAAGTCTACCAATGGACAAGCAAAAAAGAGCACTCATCTCATGCTCCCAAGGATCAACCTTCCCAGAATTTT` `CACTTAAGTGGCCACCAAGCCAGTTGTCAATCCAGGGCTTTGGACTGAAATCTAGGGCTTCATCCACTACCTCAGAGTGTCTTCCATTTCTTCCAGCCAGTGACAAATACAACAAACATCTGAGATGTTTTAGCTATAAATCCTTTACAATTGTTATTTATGTCTTAA` `CTTTTGTTATACCTGGAAAAGTAGGGGAAACAATAAGAACATACTGTCTTGGCCAAGCATCCAAGGTTAAATGAGTTATGGGAATTCATTTGGGAGCCAAGACATTGCGCGTGGTTATTTATTAGTCACCCAAGCATGTATTTTGCATGTCCATCAGTTGTTCTTGGC` `CAAAAGAACAGAATCAATGAGCCGCTGCAGATGCAGACATAGCAGCCCCTTGCAGGAACAAGTCTGCAAGATGAGCATTGAAGAGGATGCACAAGCCCGGTAGCCCGGGAAATGGCAGGCACTTACAAGAGCCCAGGTTGTTGCCATGTTTGTTTTTGCAACTTGTCT` `ATTTAAACAGATTTGA` ` ` Here is a spreadsheet detailing the raw numbers for all the indexing experiments in the paper. `Due to space limitations, we did not show the effect of changing the parameters th, or w. We do this here. First read the readme file, then w is addressed here and th is addressed here. `

We regret that our reference sections was short, due to space limitations. We attempt to redress this here.

• The first paper on DFT for indexing time series is here, however the graduate work of Davood Rafiei makes very useful contributions.
• The first paper on DWT for indexing time series is here, that paper used Haar wavelets, later papers generalized to other wavelets (see here), but it makes little difference to the efficiency of indexing.
• The first paper on Chebyshev polynomials (CHEB) for indexing time series is here, but see this.
• The first paper on IPLA for indexing time series is here, although a lower bound for more general PLA appears earlier.
• The first paper on PAA for indexing time series is here (it was called PCA, but later renamed), the same representation was independently discovered 6 months later, and named Segmented Means.
• The first paper on APCA for indexing time series is here.
• The first paper on SVD for indexing time series is here, the same paper is the first to use DCT (as a strawman comparison). This paper compares SVD, PAA/DWT and DFT.
• Michalis Vlachos and Spiros Papadimitriou present a wonderful tutorial at ICDM06 that beautifully explains all the above approaches and compares (most of) them on 65 dataset (page 292).

(Corrections to the above are welcome)

Acknowledgements:

• Thanks to all the donors of datasets.
• Thanks to Michail Vlachos for his implementation of Chebyshev polynomials.
• Pavlos Protopapas at the Harvard University Time Series Center, and Ashok Srivastava and Nikunj C. Oza of NASA Ames for motivation and fruitful discussions.