K. K. Ramakrishnan
Professor, Computer Science and Engineering
332 Winston Chung Hall
University of California, Riverside
Riverside, CA 92521
Telephone: (951) 827- 2480
Email: kk AT cs DOT ucr DOT edu
I work on Network Architecture, Protocols and Systems. Current
research at UCR includes networks for information dissemination
(Information Centric Networks), Software Based Networks -
exploiting virtualization in communication networks (Network
Function Virtualization) and Software Defined Networking. I also
work on Video delivery and Internet of Things (IoT).
Current Research Projects:
My research group is involved in a number of projects funded by
the US National Science Foundation (NSF), HP Labs - HPE, the
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Huawei Inc.
Network Function Virtualization and Software Based Networks:
We are designing the software infrastructures and management
algorithms needed to transition network services like routers,
firewalls, and intrusion detection systems from running on
hardware to more flexible, software-based environments. The basis
for our research is OpenNetVM, described in a number of papers
, LANMAN 2015, NFV-SDN 2015,HotMiddlebox
'16 ), a high performance NFV platform that we have released
as open source,OpenNetVM , to the research
community. Through careful optimizations at the systems-level,
OpenNetVM can achieve packet processing rates of nearly 70Gbps,
while retaining a flexible, SDN-controlled design. This work is
supported in part by NSF
CNS-1522546 . This work is done in collaboration with Prof. Tim Wood (George Washington University) and his group. Related papers have also been published in ACM CoNext 2016 (Flurries) and soon in ACM Sigcomm 2017 (NFVNice). More info' here .
Interoperability Across Information Centric Networks and IP:
Information Centric Networks (ICN) enable access to content, services
and objects based on their identities, independent of their
location. We are working on a number of issues on ICN, including
the creation of a framework for interoperability across multiple
ICN architectures and IP. This work is supported in part by NSF
Scalable and Energy Efficient Cellular IoT Communication:
We seek to support large-scale communication involving
Internet-of-Things (IoT). IoT traffic often needs to be carried over
cellular networks. The current cellular architecture and protocols
are inefficient and difficult to scale. We take a fresh look at the
cellular control plane to achieve efficiency and scalability, by
eliminating 3GPP tunnels that result in complex signaling and
processing and the maintenance of session state in the cellular packet
core. Our protocol, termed CleanG, is a first step in this
direction. We are also examining transport layer protocols, in the
context of IoT communications. This work is supported in part by NSF
CNS-1522546 and NSF
Resilient Communication for First Responders in Disaster Management:
Starting in June 2017, this project seeks to model and
develop resilient communication for first responders in disaster
management. Effective communication among first responders during
and in the aftermath of a disaster can affect outcomes dramatically.
We seek to build a resilient architecture that allows dynamically
formed groups of first responder teams to communicate even when
there is damage to infrastructure. This work is funded by NIST's
Public Safety Innovation Accelerator Program .
Dr. K. K. Ramakrishnan is a Professor in the Dept. of Computer
Science and Engineering at UCR. He was most recently a Distinguished
Member of Technical Staff at AT&T Labs-Research, and has been
recognized for his fundamental contributions on communication
networks including his work on congestion control, traffic
management and VPN services. He has created innovative network
solutions that are efficient and robust, working at large scale. K.
K. has published nearly 250 papers and has 160 patents issued in his
name. Prior to 1994, he was a Technical Director and Consulting
Engineer in Networking at Digital Equipment Corporation. Between
2000 and 2002, he was at TeraOptic Networks, Inc., as Founder and
Vice President. He is on the editorial
board of several journals in Networking. He has served as the TPC Chair and
General Chair for most of the major conferences on computer networks
and was a member of the National Research Council Panel on
Information Technology for NIST. He currently serves as the
Steering Committee Chair for IEEE ICNP.
Ph.D.: University of Maryland, College Park, Dept. of
Computer Science, 1983.
M.S.: University of Maryland, Dept. of Computer Science,
Masters in Engineering: Indian Institute of Science, School
of Automation, Bangalore, India, 1978.
Bachelors in Electronics Engineering: Bangalore University,
Bangalore, India, 1976.
AT&T Strategic Patent Award 2003, in recognition of a
patent significantly contributing to AT&T's business.
IEEE Fellow 2005, "for contributions to congestion control
and traffic management in communication networks".
ACM Sigcomm Test of Time Paper Award in 2006: Our paper on
the "DECbit" congestion avoidance protocol "A Binary Feedback Scheme
for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks with a Connectionless
Network Layer" published in the Proceedings of the ACM Sigcomm 1988
(see the web page: http://www.sigcomm.org/awards/test-of-time-paper-award
AT&T Fellow 2006, for "fundamental contributions to
communications networks with lasting impact on AT&T and the
industry, including congestion control, traffic management and VPN
AT&T Science and Technology Medal 2012, for "innovation
and leadership in evaluation of mobile video delivery optimizations
1. Shahryar Afzal, Jiasi Chen, K.K. Ramakrishnan,
"Characterization of 360-degree videos", to appear in ACM SIGCOMM
Workshop on Virtual and Augmented Reality Network, 2017. [ PDF ]
2. Wei Zhang, Jinho Hwang, Shriram Rajagopalan,
K. K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy Wood, “Flurries: Countless
Fine-Grained NFs for Flexible Per-Flow Customization”, Proceedings
of ACM CoNext’16, Dec. 2016.
3. Ali Mohammadkhan, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Ashok
Sunder Rajan, Christian Maciocco, “CleanG: A Clean-Slate EPC
Architecture and Control Plane Protocol for Next Generation
Cellular Networks”, Proc. of Cloud-Assisted Networking 2016
Workshop at ACM CoNext’16, Dec. 2016 (Invited).
4. Wei Zhang, Guyue Liu, Ali Mohammadkhan, Jinho
Hwang, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy Wood, “SDNFV: Flexible and
Dynamic Software Defined Control of an Application- and Flow-Aware
Data Plane”, ACM/IFIP/USENIX Middleware 2016, Dec. 2016.
5. Jiachen Chen, Mayutan Arumaithurai, Xiaoming Fu,
K. K. Ramakrishnan, “CNS: Content-oriented Notification Service
for Managing Disasters”, Proceedings of 3rd ACM Conference on
Information-Centric Networking (ICN 2016), Kyoto, Japan,
6. Wei Zhang, Guyue Liu, Wenhui Zhang, Neel Shah,
Phil Lopreiato, Gregoire Todeschi, K.K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy
Wood, “OpenNetVM: A Platform for High Performance Network Service
Chains”, Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot
Topics in Middleboxes and Network Function Virtualization,
7. Ming Zhu, Dan Li, Fangxin Wang, Anke Li,
K. K. Ramakrishnan, Ying Liu, Jianping Wu, Nan Zhu, Xue Liu,
“CCDN: Content-Centric Data Center Networks”, IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, Vol. 24, Issue 4, Aug. 2016.
8. David Applegate, Aaron Archer, Vijay
Gopalakrishnan, Seungjoon Lee and K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Optimal
Content Placement for a Large-Scale VoD System”, IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, Vol. 24, Issue 4, Aug. 2016.
9. Wei Dong, Swati Rallapalli, Lili Qiu,
K. K. Ramakrishnan, Yin Zhang, “Double Auctions for Dynamic
Spectrum Allocation”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking,
Vol. 24, Issue 4, Aug. 2016.
10. Sripriya Adhatarao, Jiachen Chen, Mayutan Arumaithurai, Xiaoming
Fu, K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Comparison of Naming Schema in ICN”,
Proc. IEEE LANMAN 2016 Symposium, Rome, Italy, June 2016.
11. Kyung-Wook Hwang, Vijay Gopalakrishnan, Rittwik
Jana, Seungjoon Lee, Vishal Misra, K. K. Ramakrishnan and Dan
Rubenstein, “Joint-Family: Adaptive BitRate Video-on-Demand
Streaming over Peer-to-Peer Networks with Realistic Abandonment
Patterns”, Computer Networks, Elsevier, June 2016.
12. Jeffrey Erman, Vijay Gopalakrishnan, Rittwik
Jana, K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Towards a SPDY’ier Mobile Web?”, IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, Volume 23 Issue 6, pp. 2010-2023,
13. Timothy Wood, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Jinho Hwang,
Grace Liu, and Wei Zhang, “Towards a Software-Based Network:
Integrating Software Defined Networking and Network Function
Virtualization”, Special issue of IEEE Network Magazine on Network
Function Virtualization: Opportunities and Challenges, 2015.
14. Ali Mohammadkhan, Guyue Liu, Wei Zhang,
K. K. Ramakrishnan and Timothy Wood, “Protocols to Support Autonomy
and Control for NFV in Software Defined Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE
Conference on Network Function Virtualization & Software Defined
Networks (IEEE NFV-SDN), San Francisco, CA, Nov. 18-21, 2015.
15. Ali Mohammadkhan, Sheida Ghapani, Guyue Liu,
Wei Zhang, K. K. Ramakrishnan and Timothy Wood, “Virtual Function
Placement and Traffic Steering in Flexible and Dynamic Software
Defined Networks”, Proc. IEEE LANMAN 2015 Workshop, Beijing, China,
16. Jiasi Chen, Mung Chiang, Jeffrey J Erman,
Guangzhi Li, K. K. Ramakrishnan Rakesh K Sinha, “Fair and Optimal
Resource Allocation for LTE Multicast (eMBMS): Group Partitioning and
Dynamics,” Proc. of IEEE Infocom 2015.
17. Wei Dong, Swati Rallapalli, Rittwik Jana, Lili
Qiu, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Leonid V. Razoumov, Yin Zhang, Tae Won Cho,
'iDEAL: Incentivized Cellular Offloading via Auctions', IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, Aug. 2014.
18. Mayutan Arumaithurai, Jiachen Chen, Edo
Monticelli, Xiaoming Fu and K. K. Ramakrishnan, 'Exploiting ICN for
Flexible Management of Software-Defined Networks, Proc. of 1st ACM
Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN 2014). (Best
19. Jinho Hwang, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy Wood,
'NetVM: High Performance and Flexible Networking Using
Virtualization on Commodity Platforms', Proceedings of USENIX NSDI
20. Jeffrey Erman, Vijay Gopalakrishnan, Rittwik
Jana, K. K. Ramakrishnan, 'Towards a SPDY'ier Mobile Web?', Proc. of
ACM CoNext 2013, Dec. 2013. (Best Paper runner-up)
21. Murat Yuksel, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Shivkumar
Kalyanaraman, Joseph D. Houle, Rita Sadhvani, 'Required Extra
Capacity: A Comparative Estimation of Overprovisioning Needed for a
Classless IP Backbone', Computer Networks, Elsevier Science,
22. V. Sharma, K. Kar, K. K. Ramakrishnan and S.
Kalyanaraman, 'A Transport Protocol Exploiting Multipath Diversity
in Wireless Networks', IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking, August 2012.
23. Tim Wood, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Jacobus Van der
Merwe, Prashant Shenoy, 'Enterprise-Ready Virtual Cloud Pools:
Vision, Opportunities, and Challenges', The Computer Journal, Oxford
24. Tim Wood, Andres Horacio Lagar, K. K.
Ramakrishnan, Jacobus Van der Merwe, Prashant Shenoy, 'PipeCloud:
Using Causality to Overcome Speed-of-Light Delays in Cloud-Based
Disaster Recovery', ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (SOCC
2011), Oct. 2011.
25. J. Chen, M. Arumaithurai, L. Jiao, X. Fu, K. K.
Ramakrishnan, COPSS: An Efficient Content Oriented Publish/Subscribe
System, ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and
Communications Systems (ANCS), 2011.
26. N.G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K.
Ramakrishnan, and J. E. Van der Merwe, 'A Flexible Model for
Resource Management in Virtual Private Networks', IEEE/ACM
Transactions on Networking, Oct. 2002.
27. J. C. Mogul and K. K. Ramakrishnan, "Eliminating Receive Livelock
in an Interrupt-driven Kernel", ACM Transactions on Computer
Systems, Oct. 1997.
28. K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. Jain, "A Binary Feedback Scheme for
Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks", ACM Transactions on
Computer Systems, 1990.