K. K. Ramakrishnan
Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

KK Ramakrishnan 332 Winston Chung Hall
University of California, Riverside
Riverside, CA 92521
Telephone: (951) 827- 2480
Email: kk AT cs DOT ucr DOT edu

Research Areas:

I work on Network Architecture, Protocols and Systems. Current research at UCR includes networks for information dissemination (Information Centric Networks), Software Based Networks - exploiting virtualization in communication networks (Network Function Virtualization) and Software Defined Networking. I also work on Video delivery and Internet of Things (IoT).
Current Research Projects:

My research group is involved in a number of projects funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), HP Labs - HPE, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Huawei Inc.

Network Function Virtualization and Software Based Networks:

We are designing the software infrastructures and management algorithms needed to transition network services like routers, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems from running on hardware to more flexible, software-based environments. The basis for our research is OpenNetVM, described in a number of papers (NSDI'14 , LANMAN 2015, NFV-SDN 2015,HotMiddlebox '16 ), a high performance NFV platform that we have released as open source,OpenNetVM , to the research community. Through careful optimizations at the systems-level, OpenNetVM can achieve packet processing rates of nearly 70Gbps, while retaining a flexible, SDN-controlled design. This work is supported in part by NSF CNS-1522546 . This work is done in collaboration with Prof. Tim Wood (George Washington University) and his group. Related papers have also been published in ACM CoNext 2016 (Flurries) and soon in ACM Sigcomm 2017 (NFVNice). More info' here .

Interoperability Across Information Centric Networks and IP:

Information Centric Networks (ICN) enable access to content, services and objects based on their identities, independent of their location. We are working on a number of issues on ICN, including the creation of a framework for interoperability across multiple ICN architectures and IP. This work is supported in part by NSF CNS-1455815 .

Scalable and Energy Efficient Cellular IoT Communication:

We seek to support large-scale communication involving Internet-of-Things (IoT). IoT traffic often needs to be carried over cellular networks. The current cellular architecture and protocols are inefficient and difficult to scale. We take a fresh look at the cellular control plane to achieve efficiency and scalability, by eliminating 3GPP tunnels that result in complex signaling and processing and the maintenance of session state in the cellular packet core. Our protocol, termed CleanG, is a first step in this direction. We are also examining transport layer protocols, in the context of IoT communications. This work is supported in part by NSF CNS-1522546 and NSF CNS-1619441 .

Resilient Communication for First Responders in Disaster Management:

Starting in June 2017, this project seeks to model and develop resilient communication for first responders in disaster management. Effective communication among first responders during and in the aftermath of a disaster can affect outcomes dramatically. We seek to build a resilient architecture that allows dynamically formed groups of first responder teams to communicate even when there is damage to infrastructure. This work is funded by NIST's Public Safety Innovation Accelerator Program .

Network Video Delivery:

We also work on network video delivery. In collaboration with Prof. Jiasi Chen at UCR, we work on understanding 360-degree/VR video and the challenges in delivering it over wireless networks. In collaboration with Prof. Cormac Sreenan at University College Cork, Ireland, we have been working on delivering DASH video over cellular networks. Our recent paper, "SAP: Stall-Aware Pacing for Improved DASH Video Experience in Cellular Networks" was awarded the first prize in the DASH Industry Forum Excellence in DASH Award at the ACM MMSys 2017 conference. More information on SAP can be found on the project web page on Stall Aware Pacing .


Dr. K. K. Ramakrishnan is a Professor in the Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering at UCR. He was most recently a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at AT&T Labs-Research, and has been recognized for his fundamental contributions on communication networks including his work on congestion control, traffic management and VPN services. He has created innovative network solutions that are efficient and robust, working at large scale. K. K. has published nearly 250 papers and has 160 patents issued in his name. Prior to 1994, he was a Technical Director and Consulting Engineer in Networking at Digital Equipment Corporation. Between 2000 and 2002, he was at TeraOptic Networks, Inc., as Founder and Vice President. He is on the editorial board of several journals in Networking. He has served as the TPC Chair and General Chair for most of the major conferences on computer networks and was a member of the National Research Council Panel on Information Technology for NIST. He currently serves as the Steering Committee Chair for IEEE ICNP.  

Ph.D.: University of Maryland, College Park, Dept. of Computer Science, 1983.

M.S.: University of Maryland, Dept. of Computer Science, 1981.
Masters in Engineering: Indian Institute of Science, School of Automation, Bangalore, India, 1978.
Bachelors in Electronics Engineering: Bangalore University, Bangalore, India, 1976.

AT&T Strategic Patent Award 2003, in recognition of a patent significantly contributing to AT&T's business.
IEEE Fellow 2005, "for contributions to congestion control and traffic management in communication networks".
ACM Sigcomm Test of Time Paper Award in 2006: Our paper on the "DECbit" congestion avoidance protocol "A Binary Feedback Scheme for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks with a Connectionless Network Layer" published in the Proceedings of the ACM Sigcomm 1988 (see the web page: http://www.sigcomm.org/awards/test-of-time-paper-award ).
AT&T Fellow 2006, for "fundamental contributions to communications networks with lasting impact on AT&T and the industry, including congestion control, traffic management and VPN services".
AT&T Science and Technology Medal 2012, for "innovation and leadership in evaluation of mobile video delivery optimizations techniques."
For a current list of my publications, see the Google Scholar page and the DBLP page.  
Selected Publications:

1.   Shahryar Afzal, Jiasi Chen, K.K. Ramakrishnan, "Characterization of 360-degree videos", to appear in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Virtual and Augmented Reality Network, 2017. [ PDF ]
2.   Wei Zhang, Jinho Hwang, Shriram Rajagopalan, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy Wood, “Flurries: Countless Fine-Grained NFs for Flexible Per-Flow Customization”, Proceedings of ACM CoNext’16, Dec. 2016.
3.   Ali Mohammadkhan, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Ashok Sunder Rajan, Christian Maciocco, “CleanG: A Clean-Slate EPC Architecture and Control Plane Protocol for Next Generation Cellular Networks”, Proc. of Cloud-Assisted Networking 2016 Workshop at ACM CoNext’16, Dec. 2016 (Invited).
4.   Wei Zhang, Guyue Liu, Ali Mohammadkhan, Jinho Hwang, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy Wood, “SDNFV: Flexible and Dynamic Software Defined Control of an Application- and Flow-Aware Data Plane”, ACM/IFIP/USENIX Middleware 2016, Dec. 2016.
5.   Jiachen Chen, Mayutan Arumaithurai, Xiaoming Fu, K. K. Ramakrishnan, “CNS: Content-oriented Notification Service for Managing Disasters”, Proceedings of 3rd ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN 2016), Kyoto, Japan, Sept. 2016.
6.    Wei Zhang, Guyue Liu, Wenhui Zhang, Neel Shah, Phil Lopreiato, Gregoire Todeschi, K.K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy Wood, “OpenNetVM: A Platform for High Performance Network Service Chains”, Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Hot Topics in Middleboxes and Network Function Virtualization, Aug. 2016.
7.    Ming Zhu, Dan Li, Fangxin Wang, Anke Li, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Ying Liu, Jianping Wu, Nan Zhu, Xue Liu, “CCDN: Content-Centric Data Center Networks”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 24, Issue 4, Aug. 2016.
8.    David Applegate, Aaron Archer, Vijay Gopalakrishnan, Seungjoon Lee and K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Optimal Content Placement for a Large-Scale VoD System”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 24, Issue 4, Aug. 2016.
9.    Wei Dong, Swati Rallapalli, Lili Qiu, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Yin Zhang, “Double Auctions for Dynamic Spectrum Allocation”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 24, Issue 4, Aug. 2016.
10. Sripriya Adhatarao, Jiachen Chen, Mayutan Arumaithurai, Xiaoming Fu, K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Comparison of Naming Schema in ICN”, Proc. IEEE LANMAN 2016 Symposium, Rome, Italy, June 2016.
11.    Kyung-Wook Hwang, Vijay Gopalakrishnan, Rittwik Jana, Seungjoon Lee, Vishal Misra, K. K. Ramakrishnan and Dan Rubenstein, “Joint-Family: Adaptive BitRate Video-on-Demand Streaming over Peer-to-Peer Networks with Realistic Abandonment Patterns”, Computer Networks, Elsevier, June 2016.
12.    Jeffrey Erman, Vijay Gopalakrishnan, Rittwik Jana, K. K. Ramakrishnan, “Towards a SPDY’ier Mobile Web?”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Volume 23 Issue 6, pp. 2010-2023, Dec. 2015.
13.    Timothy Wood, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Jinho Hwang, Grace Liu, and Wei Zhang, “Towards a Software-Based Network: Integrating Software Defined Networking and Network Function Virtualization”, Special issue of IEEE Network Magazine on Network Function Virtualization: Opportunities and Challenges, 2015.
14.     Ali Mohammadkhan, Guyue Liu, Wei Zhang, K. K. Ramakrishnan and Timothy Wood, “Protocols to Support Autonomy and Control for NFV in Software Defined Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization & Software Defined Networks (IEEE NFV-SDN), San Francisco, CA, Nov. 18-21, 2015.
15.     Ali Mohammadkhan, Sheida Ghapani, Guyue Liu, Wei Zhang, K. K. Ramakrishnan and Timothy Wood, “Virtual Function Placement and Traffic Steering in Flexible and Dynamic Software Defined Networks”, Proc. IEEE LANMAN 2015 Workshop, Beijing, China, April 2015.
16.     Jiasi Chen, Mung Chiang, Jeffrey J Erman, Guangzhi Li, K. K. Ramakrishnan Rakesh K Sinha, “Fair and Optimal Resource Allocation for LTE Multicast (eMBMS): Group Partitioning and Dynamics,” Proc. of IEEE Infocom 2015.
17.    Wei Dong, Swati Rallapalli, Rittwik Jana, Lili Qiu, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Leonid V. Razoumov, Yin Zhang, Tae Won Cho, 'iDEAL: Incentivized Cellular Offloading via Auctions', IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Aug. 2014.
18.    Mayutan Arumaithurai, Jiachen Chen, Edo Monticelli, Xiaoming Fu and K. K. Ramakrishnan, 'Exploiting ICN for Flexible Management of Software-Defined Networks, Proc. of 1st ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking (ICN 2014). (Best Paper Award)
19.    Jinho Hwang, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Timothy Wood, 'NetVM: High Performance and Flexible Networking Using Virtualization on Commodity Platforms', Proceedings of USENIX NSDI 2014.
20.    Jeffrey Erman, Vijay Gopalakrishnan, Rittwik Jana, K. K. Ramakrishnan, 'Towards a SPDY'ier Mobile Web?', Proc. of ACM CoNext 2013, Dec. 2013. (Best Paper runner-up)
21.    Murat Yuksel, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Shivkumar Kalyanaraman, Joseph D. Houle, Rita Sadhvani, 'Required Extra Capacity: A Comparative Estimation of Overprovisioning Needed for a Classless IP Backbone', Computer Networks, Elsevier Science, November 2012.
22.    V. Sharma, K. Kar, K. K. Ramakrishnan and S. Kalyanaraman, 'A Transport Protocol Exploiting Multipath Diversity in Wireless Networks', IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking, August 2012.
23.    Tim Wood, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Jacobus Van der Merwe, Prashant Shenoy, 'Enterprise-Ready Virtual Cloud Pools: Vision, Opportunities, and Challenges', The Computer Journal, Oxford Journals, 2012.
24.    Tim Wood, Andres Horacio Lagar, K. K. Ramakrishnan, Jacobus Van der Merwe, Prashant Shenoy, 'PipeCloud: Using Causality to Overcome Speed-of-Light Delays in Cloud-Based Disaster Recovery', ACM Symposium on Cloud Computing (SOCC 2011), Oct. 2011.
25.    J. Chen, M. Arumaithurai, L. Jiao, X. Fu, K. K. Ramakrishnan, COPSS: An Efficient Content Oriented Publish/Subscribe System, ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS), 2011.
26.    N.G. Duffield, P. Goyal, A. Greenberg, P. Mishra, K. K. Ramakrishnan, and J. E. Van der Merwe, 'A Flexible Model for Resource Management in Virtual Private Networks', IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Oct. 2002.
27.    J. C. Mogul and K. K. Ramakrishnan, "Eliminating Receive Livelock in an Interrupt-driven Kernel", ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, Oct. 1997.
28.    K. K. Ramakrishnan, R. Jain, "A Binary Feedback Scheme for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks", ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 1990.